Evolution of Diplomacy :
The first session of the online diplomacy course was successfully completed on 20th August 2021 in which our speaker Ms. Ayshan Aslan Mammadli who is currently serving as a lecturer at Baku State University Azerbaijan, discussed the evolution of diplomacy. Diplomacy is the principal activity of heads of the states and governments as well as organizations in International Relations. The term “Diplomacy” comes from the word “diplomat” which first was translated as “diploma”. A diploma was a government document, an official and superior document.
The oldest treaties which its full texts survive, from about 1280 BCE, were between Ramses II of Egypt and Hittite leaders.
Early Chinese Diplomacy:
The first records of Chinese and Indian diplomacy date from the first millennium BCE as well as ancient India were home to equally sophisticated but very different diplomatic traditions. Moving towards ancient Greek Diplomacy, today’s world system of International Relations started in ancient Greece. The Greeks developed archives, a diplomatic vocabulary, principles of International conduct that anticipated International law, and many other elements of modern diplomacy.
Ancient Rome Diplomacy:
Rome took what the Greeks devised and adapted it to the task of imperial administration. During the Roman Republic, the senate conducted foreign policy via a department of foreign affairs which was established later under the empire as well as the emperor was the ultimate decision-maker in foreign affairs.
The Middle Ages:
Most of the Western Empire’s diplomatic traditions disappeared when they disintegrated in the fifth century. The eastern half of the Roman Empire continued for nearly a thousand years as the Byzantine empire.
Arabs took control of the large areas in the 7th century; this includes Byzantium southern and Northern African provinces. They also united Arabs, Persians, and Turks as well as the people of central Asia.
Diplomacy of the Roman Catholic Church:
when Byzantium was collapsed, the West started to revive. indeed in its difficult time, the Roman Catholic Church conducted active diplomacy, especially at Constantinople. the diplomacy of the Roman Catholic Church was proved to be active in the 13th century during the struggle against the Holy Roman Emperors.
In the 12th century, the term Ambassador appeared in Italy. this comes from the word in Latin “ambactiare” meaning to go on a mission. the location of Venice and its relations with Constantinople allowed it to take the major elements of the Byzantine diplomatic system.
The development of Italian Diplomacy in Renaissance:
In the late middle ages and the early renaissance period, most embassies were temporary lasting from three months to two years. Resident embassies became the norm in Italy in the late 15th century. The first modern foreign ministry was established in 1626 by France by Cardinal Richelieu. Richelieu rejected the point of view that policy should be based on dynastic or sentimental concerns. he argued that the state transcended crown, prince and people had interests independent of all these elements. This was the era of development of the Foreign Ministry and Embassies.
Thank you so much.
The recording of the whole session is given below.